Scientific Highlights - Chronological Order
A. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and Highly Absorptive Metamaterials
1. Collective Theory for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (1996)
Our first work on Plasmonics, done in collaboration with Prof. Sir John Pendry (Imperial College), was devoted to reveal the physics behind the phenomenon of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). We analyzed how this phenomenon can emerge in structured metallic surfaces. This paper has become one of the most cited theoretical works devoted to SERS and is considered as one of the pioneering papers in the whole field of Plasmonics.
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Collective theory for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1163 (1996).
2. An Array of Carbon Nanotubes as the Darkest Man-made Material Ever (1997)
In 1997, when I returned to UAM after the postdoctoral stay at Imperial College, we discovered that an array of very long and aligned carbon nanotubes when placed periodically at a length scale much smaller than optical wavelengths behaves as a metamaterial in which light could be trapped with great efficiency. This theoretical proposal was experimentally verified in 2008 and announced as the “darkest man-made material ever’’ at that time.
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. M. Pitarke, and J. B. Pendry, “Effective medium theory of the optical properties of aligned carbon nanotubes”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4289 (1997).
B. Extraordinary Optical Transmission Through Subwavelength Apertures
1. Theoretical Explanation of the Phenomenon of Extraordinary Optical Transmission Through Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures (1999-2002)
Our first work devoted to analyzing from a fundamental point of view the phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) was published in 1999 and was intended to study the transmission of light through a one-dimensional array of slits. A more detailed study was presented in 2002. The analysis of the two-dimensional case was reported in 2001 in two complementary papers that clearly demonstrated the key role played by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the emergence of EOT phenomenon. In 2010 we were commissioned by the editors of Reviews of Modern Physics to prepare a review paper on the theoretical foundations of EOT phenomenon.
- J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
- L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114-1117 (2001).
- A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission”, Opt. Commun. 200, 1 (2001).
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal and L. Martin-Moreno, “Transmission and focusing of light in one-dimensional periodically nanostructured metals”, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures”, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729 (2010).
2. Beating the Diffraction Limit in Single Apertures by Corrugating Their Entrance/exit Surfaces (2002-2003)
Already in 2001, our group (in collaboration with the experimental group led by Prof. Thomas W. Ebbesen at ISIS in Strasbourg) realized that momentum-matching conditions between the incident light and SPPs could be fulfilled with a single aperture surrounded by periodic corrugations. We also speculated that, if we put periodic corrugations around the aperture on the output side, we might favor the decoupling process and beam the light in a given direction. In other words, we could beat the diffraction limit by just periodically corrugating both input and output surfaces. Indeed, this idea worked experimentally, and we published our findings in 2002. The theoretical foundation of these two phenomena (enhanced transmission and beaming) was published in two separate papers in 2003. In addition, we also found that these structures could be used as lenses.
- H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen. “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture”, Science 297, 820-822, (2002).
- L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen. “Theory of highly directional emission from single sub-wavelength apertures surrounded by surface corrugations”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401, (2003).
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance the optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single aperture flanked by surface corrugations”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
3. Resonant Transmission of Light Through Single Rectangular Apertures (2005)
After our extensive work on periodic arrays of apertures and single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations, we also discovered that single rectangular holes perforated on optically thick metallic films also display localized resonances in which the transmission of light is greatly enhanced.
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
4. Extension of the Phenomenon of Extraordinary Optical Transmission to Other Types of Waves (2004-2011)
In 2003, after revealing the physics behind the EOT phenomenon, we started to test the generality of the EOT phenomenon. First, we found that the same EOT phenomenon could emerge in photonic crystals. Subsequently, we also discovered that resonant transmission through subwavelength apertures aided by surface waves is a very general phenomenon that could appear in the case of matter waves and also for acoustic radiation. In this last case, in collaboration with the experimental group of Prof. Xiang Zhang in Berkeley (USA), we devised in 2011 an endoscope based on the EOT phenomenon.
- E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno. “Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes”, Phys. Rev. B(RC) 69, (2004).
- J. Christensen, A. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. De Leon-Perez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Collimation of sound assisted by acoustic surface waves”, Nature Physics 3, 851 (2007).
- J. Christensen, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Theory of resonant acoustic transmission through subwavelength apertures”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 014301 (2008).
- J. Zhu, J. Christensen, J. Jung, L. Martin-Moreno, X. Yin, L. Fok, X. Zhang, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “A holey-structured metamaterial for acoustic deep-subwavelength imaging”, Nature Physics 7, 52 (2011).
C. The Concept of Spoof Surface Plasmons
1. The Concept of Spoof Surface Plasmons (2004-)
In 2003 we realized that the EOT phenomenon could also appear in frequency regimes in which the metal behaves as a perfect conductor. This finding had a fundamental implication because is known that the surface of a perfect conductor does not support the excitation of SPPs. However, we found that surface electromagnetic modes similar to the SPPs in the optical regime can be supported by the structured surface of a perfect conductor. Due to this behavior, we named these modes as spoof SPPs, and its fundamental properties were explained in two subsequent papers published in 2004 and 2005. In year 2012, we extended the concept of spoof surface plasmons to the case of localized resonances. After fifteen years of research in this area, in year 2020 we were commissioned by the editors of Reviews of Modern Physics to prepare a review paper on these spoof surface plasmons and their capabilities for applications.
- J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces”, Science 305, 847 (2004).
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surface with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials”, J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 7, S97 (2005).
- Anders Pors, Esteban Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, J. B. Pendry, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Localized spoof plasmons arise while texturing closed surfaces”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 223905 (2012).
- F. J. Garcia-Vidal, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, H. C. Zhang, W. Tang, R. Peng, and T. J. Cui, “Spoof surface plasmon photonics”, Reviews of Modern Physics [to appear, 2021]
2. Microwave and Terahertz Waveguiding Schemes Based on Spoof Surface Plasmons (2006-)
The concept of spoof surface plasmons introduced by us in 2004 opened up a new line of research within Plasmonics with the aim of transferring all the potentialities of SPPs in the optical regime to lower frequencies. First, in 2006 we found that spoof SPPs could also appeared in corrugated wires. Two years after, in collaboration with the experimental group of Prof. Stefan Maier at Imperial College, we corroborated the existence of spoof SPPs in two-dimensional arrays of dimples drilled on copper surfaces. In 2013, we introduced and verified experimentally with the help of the group of Prof. Tie Jun Cui in Southeast University (China) the concept of “conformal surface plasmons’’, spoof surface plasmons that are able to propagate along very thin metallic films that are corrugated in a deep-subwavelength scale.
- S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Terahertz surface plasmon polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
- C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces”, Nature Photonics 2, 175 (2008).
- D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and Esteban Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry”, Optics Express 18, 754 (2010).
- X. Shen, T. J. Cui, D. Martin-Cano, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Conformal surface plasmons propagating on ultrathin and flexible films”, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 110, 40 (2013).
D. Light Waveguiding Using Surface Plasmons
1. Plasmonic Waveguding at Telecom Frequencies (2006-2008)
One of the most exciting capabilities of surface plasmons is to carry light (information) on the surface of a metallic film. Although limited by the inherent absorption within the metal, there has been a renewed interest in these light-waveguiding possibilities of SPPs. In our group we started in 2006 a new line of research devoted to analyzing different SPP-waveguiding schemes, in particular channel plasmon polaritons and wedge plasmon polaritons.
- E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi. “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses”, Opt. Lett. 31, 3447, (2006).
- E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901, (2008).
2. Surface Plasmons Propagating in Graphene (2011-2012)
A monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal array (graphene) is able to support the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons that present an extremely deep-subwavelength confinement.
- A. Yu Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno. “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons”, Phys. Rev. B 84, 161407 (2011).
- A. Yu Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno. “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet”, Phys. Rev. B 84, 195446 (2011).
- A. Yu Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno. “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and supressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons”, Phys. Rev. B 85, 081405 (2012).
- Bing Wang, Xiang Zhang, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, Xiaocong Yuan, and Jinghua Teng. “Strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073901 (2012).
E. Quantum Plasmonics
1. Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics Based on 1d Plasmons (2011-2016)
During our study of light waveguiding schemes based on surface plasmons, we realized that light-matter is strongly enhanced when quantum emitters (quantum dots, nitrogen vacancies or organic molecules) are placed closely to plasmonic structures. Based on this effect, we demonstrated that surface plasmons propagating along plasmonic waveguides (channel plasmons or wedge plasmons) are excellent mediators in the interaction between distant quantum emitters.
- A. Gonzalez-Tudela, D. Martin-Cano, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, C. Tejedor, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Entanglement of two qubits mediated by one-dimensional plasmonic waveguides”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 020501 (2011).
- E. Bermúdez-Ureña, C. Gonzalez-Ballestero, M. Geiselmann, R. Marty, I. P. Radko, T. Holmgaard, Y. Alaverdyan, E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and R. Quidant, “Coupling of individual quantum emitters to channel plasmons”, Nature Communications 6, 7883 (2015).
2. Theory of Strong Coupling Between Organic Molecules and Plasmonic Structures (2011-)
Thanks to the ERC Advanced Grant, since 2012 we have started a very fruitful line of research in our group devoted to analyzing from a fundamental perspective the phenomenon of collective strong coupling between excitons in organic molecules and plasmons supported by metallic structures that had been reported experimentally. In two seminal papers published in 2013 and 2014 we have presented the theoretical foundation of this phenomenon.
- A. Gonzalez-Tudela, P. A. Huidobro, L. Martin-Moreno, C. Tejedor, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Theory of strong coupling between quantum emitters and propagating surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126801 (2013).
- A. Delga, J. Feist, J. Bravo-Abad, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal. “Quantum emitters near a metal nanoparticle: strong coupling and quenching”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 253601 (2014).
F. Near-field Radiative Heat Transfer
1. Near-field Radiative Heat Transfer in Polar Materials (2015-2017)
In year 2013, we established a collaboration with our colleague Prof. Juan Carlos Cuevas at UAM and the experimental group led by Profs. Meinhofer and Reddy at the University of Michigan to study from a fundamental perspective how the process of radiative heat transfer between objects is modified when they are located in very close proximity, such that the heat transfer is dominated by the near electromagnetic fields.
- B. Song, Y. Ganjeh, S. Sadat, D. Thompson, A. Fiorino, V. Fernández-Hurtado, J. Feist, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. C. Cuevas, P. Reddy and E. Meyhofer. “Enhancement of near-field radiative heat transfer using polar dielectric thin films”, Nature Nanotechnology 10, 253 (2015).
- K. Kim, B. Song, V. Fernández-Hurtado, W. Lee, W. Jeong, L. Cui, D. Thompson, J. Feist, M. T. Homer Reid, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. C. Cuevas, E. Meyhofer, and P. Reddy. “Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field”, Nature 582, 387 (2015).
G. Polaritonic Chemistry and Materials Science
1. Polaritonic Chemistry (2015-)
Thanks to our fundamental study of the phenomenon of strong coupling commented above, we have recently demonstrated theoretically that it is possible to alter chemical reactions and material properties of organic materials by taking advantage of this phenomenon. These findings were totally unexpected and have opened up a new area of research with a great potential for future applications, both in Chemistry (creating new pathways for chemical reactions) and in Materials Science (controlling the flow of excitons in organic solar cells or other photovoltaic structures). In collaboration with Profs. Thomas Ebbesen and Cristiano Ciuti, we have been invited by the editors of Science to prepare a review/perspective article on this subject for the journal.
- Javier Galego, Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal, and Johannes Feist. “Cavity-Induced Modifications of Molecular Structure in the Strong-Coupling Regime”, Physical Review X 5, 041022 (2015).
- J. Galego, Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal, and Johannes Feist. “Suppressing photochemical reactions with quantized light fields”, Nature Communications 7, 13841 (2016).
- Javier Galego, Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal, and Johannes Feist. “Many-Molecule Reaction Triggered by a Single Photon in Polaritonic Chemistry”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 136001 (2017).
- Johannes Feist, Javier Galego, and Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal. “Polaritonic Chemistry with Organic Molecules”, ACS Photonics 5, 205 (2018).
- Javier Galego, Clàudia Climent, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. Feist. “Cavity Casimir-Polder forces and their effects in ground-state chemical reactivity”, Physical Review X 9, 021057 (2019).
2. Changing Material Properties with Polaritons (2015-)
- Johannes Feist and Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal. “Extraordinary Exciton Conductance Induced by Strong Coupling”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 196402 (2015).
- C. Gonzalez-Ballestero, Johannes Feist, Esteban Moreno, and Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal, “Harvesting excitons through plasmonic strong coupling”, Phys. Rev. B 92, 121402(R) (2015).
- C. Gonzalez-Ballestero, Johannes Feist, Eduardo Gonzalo Badia, Esteban Moreno, and Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal. “Uncoupled dark states can inherit polaritonic properties”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 156402 (2016).
- Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal and Johannes Feist. “Long distance operator for energy transfer”, Science 357, 1357 (2017).
- Francisco J. Garcia-Vidal, Cristiano Ciuti, and Thomas W. Ebbesen. “Manipulating matter by strong coupling to vacuum fields”, Science (to appear, 2021).